Peak: The day, or stretch of days, with the highest variety of cases or deaths reported in an offered period, as seen in a day-by-day breakdown (also called an epidemic curve). It normally shows the “worst” point in an epidemic– after the peak, case numbers diminish. For more, see NPRs primer on “When will each state peak?”.
Aerosolized virus particles: Smaller than droplets, these particles can be expelled by an infected individual. They await the air longer than larger droplets, which tend to fall due to gravity. Their role in transmission of COVID-19 is not yet clear.
Pandemic: “An epidemic taking place worldwide, or over an extremely large location, crossing worldwide limits and generally affecting a large number of individuals,” according to A Dictionary of Epidemiology. The World Health Organization stated COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020, describing it as “the very first pandemic brought on by a coronavirus.”
Its not clear how regularly people with no signs are spreading the virus, but researchers have actually documented spread from both presymptomatic and asymptomatic cases.
Second wave: A fresh crop of coronavirus infections in an area where public health authorities had actually brought virus transmission down to low levels. Hokkaido, Japan experienced double-digit boosts in case numbers in April after reopening schools and enabling public gatherings. U.S. health authorities have actually warned of a possible second wave of infections in the fall even as the nation continues to fight its very first wave.
Seclusion: Physically separating people who are understood to be sick from those who are healthy. Medical facilities frequently put patients who are sick in seclusion to prevent the spread of disease.
Coronavirus: A classification of viruses that can cause fever, breathing troubles, pneumonia and diarrhea. 7 coronaviruses are known to contaminate human beings, consisting of four that can cause the common cold. Some are possibly deadly. The name originates from the Latin word “corona,” which implies crown. Under a microscope, these infections are identified by circles with spikes ending in little blobs.
Epidemic: A sudden increase in the number of cases of an illness in a specific geographical location beyond the number health officials generally expect. A boost in a reasonably small geographical location or among a small group of individuals might be called an “outbreak.” The difference in between an outbreak, an epidemic and a pandemic is subjective and depends on the viewpoints of scientists and health authorities.
Asymptomatic: A person who is asymptomatic is infected with SARS-COV-2 but never establishes any symptoms of the infection. Researchers are working to identify the number of people who get infected fit into this classification– existing estimates fall “anywhere between 6% and 41%,” a World Health Organization official stated June 9. “Asymptomatic” is often used to describe anyone who shows no symptoms at the time of screening favorable for the infection however some of these individuals might in fact be “presymptomatic” and will establish symptoms over the next couple of days.
SARS-COV-2 aka “unique coronavirus”: The name for the infection that has spread out rapidly around the world, causing infections in millions of people. The numeral “2” is implied to distinguish this coronavirus from the virus that triggered the SARS epidemic.
Scientists have identified hundreds of coronaviruses in animals, such as camels, pigs, bats and cats, that are generally not transmissible to human beings. In uncommon instances, a coronavirus mutates and can pass from animals to human beings and after that spread out among people, as was the case with the SARS (severe acute breathing syndrome) epidemic in the early 2000s and now with the COVID-19 pandemic.
If each subsequent generation of brand-new infections reduces (if RT << 1), the virus ultimately vanishes. The more time an individual spends in close spatial proximity to contaminated people, the greater the likelihood that the infection will spread. RT can reduce in areas where lots of individuals get resistance to the virus, due to the fact that the infection then runs out of new individuals to contaminate. Transmission: How a virus receives from one individual to the next. When it comes to SARS-COV-2, researchers think the virus is primarily spread via the respiratory path, through close contact with a contaminated individual, whose virus-laden beads are expelled from the nose or mouth and discover their way into the eyes, noses and mouths of others. Other possible paths of transmission, presently under investigation, include touching virus-contaminated surface areas and then presenting those bacteria to ones eyes, nose or mouth; or breathing in clouds of small "aerosolized" virus particles that may be traveling on air currents. Sometimes the infection might mutate to end up being more contagious. Or some individuals just breathe out more virus from their lungs. Social distancing: Staying a certain distance from other individuals in outside and indoor settings to reduce ones chances of spreading or getting virus-laden respiratory droplets-- the CDC recommends 6 feet. Widespread social distancing has been credited with decreasing infection transmission in several countries. Likewise described as "physical distancing.". Contact tracing: Finding and informing individuals who may have entered into contact with an individual contaminated with a disease so they can take measures to avoid the illness from possibly spreading. For the unique coronavirus, the CDC specifies a close contact as someone who has actually invested at least 15 minutes within 6 feet of a person with a verified or likely case of the coronavirus. Zoonosis: Any disease that spreads from animals to people. The animals can range from tiny ticks to lumbering livestock. COVID-19 is thought about a zoonotic disease-- it is believed to have come from Chinese horseshoe bats and infected human beings, possibly with a drop in a various animal in-between. Herd resistance: The concept that if enough individuals in one location develop resistance to the virus, through direct exposure or vaccination, then the virus doesnt have any brand-new individuals to infect so it burns itself out. For COVID-19, the percentage of individuals who had actually requirement resistance to slow the spread of the virus is approximated at 50 to 60%. Abraar Karan, a physician at Harvard Medical School, was a source for this glossary. Heres a glossary in case youre not up on the most current medical and testing lingo. We begin with the nomenclature of the infection. The more time a person invests in close spatial distance to contaminated individuals, the greater the possibility that the virus will spread. RT can decrease in locations where numerous people acquire resistance to the virus, since the infection then runs out of new individuals to infect. For SARS-COV-2, researchers are determining the length of time a contaminated individual sheds infection by testing swab samples from contaminated individuals over time. People also appear to shed the highest amounts of virus around the time symptoms initially appear. Antibodies: Proteins produced by a persons body immune system to combat an infection. In the case of the novel coronavirus, antibodies usually take about 1-3 weeks after infection to develop in quantifiable quantities. Antibodies might stick around in the body after infection to offer ongoing defense versus an invading pathogen. Public health officials are testing individualss blood samples for antibodies against the unique coronavirus to see if they have been infected in the recent past. This will assist researchers understand how widely the coronavirus has spread and gauge how numerous cases are asymptomatic. Evaluating: A treatment to identify if the individual is, or has just recently been, infected with an illness. The most common diagnostic test for the novel coronavirus involves taking a swab sample from someones nose or throat and analyzing it for indicators of SARS-COV-2 viral RNA. Other tests look for proteins from the infection, or for antibodies in blood samples. For additional information, take a look at NPRs testing primer. COVID-19: The name of the disease that can be caused by SARS-COV-2. It means "coronavirus disease 2019," as doctors in Wuhan, China, first found clients ill with the illness in late 2019. The disease can provide with a large range of results that scientists are still working to uncover. The evolving list of symptoms is broad, consisting of: fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, headaches, chills, muscle discomfort, tiredness, diarrhea, nausea, throwing up and loss of taste or odor. Not every client displays the complete series of signs. The incubation period helps figure out how long an individual ought to be quarantined to prevent the spread of infection. Most people who develop signs of COVID-19 will do so within 12 days-- which is why public health officials advise a two-week quarantine for anyone who thinks theyve been exposed to the novel coronavirus. Rolling average: The number of new validated cases or deaths, balanced over a couple of days. The duration is the researchers option-- different analysts have selected to balance the numbers of cases and deaths over 3, 5 and 7 days. Swimming pool sampling: A testing technique where samples from various individuals are combined into a bigger batch that is evaluated for the presence of the coronavirus. If a batch tests positive, the samples would be retested separately to identify which ones include the infection. Asymptomatic/presymptomatic spread: When a contaminated person who has no signs of the illness transfers the novel coronavirus to somebody else. Its unclear how frequently individuals without any symptoms are spreading out the virus, however scientists have actually documented spread from both asymptomatic and presymptomatic cases. That is the primary reason numerous health departments advise mask-wearing in shared spaces-- to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus, especially from individuals who might not understand they have it. Comorbidity: A medical condition that increases a persons threat of ending up being extremely ill if they develop COVID-19. These conditions include chronic kidney disease, COPD (persistent obstructive pulmonary illness), weight problems, severe heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Other conditions that might up someones risk of extreme COVID-19 disease consist of asthma, hypertension, compromised body immune systems, smoking and type 1 diabetes. Fomite: An item covered with virus particles, possibly because somebody recently sneezed or coughed respiratory beads onto it. A counter top or a phone might become fomites if infected-- and function as a prospective source for "indirect" transmission if an individual touches the virus-covered surface and after that presents the virus to their eyes, nose or mouth. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explains this as a "possible" path of coronavirus transmission however maintains that close contact in between people is thought to be responsible for the majority of new infections. Other valuable primers from NPR: Death Rate. Viral shedding: When a contaminated individual releases viral particles from their bodies, which might or might not be contagious depending on the stage of infection. This can take place through activities like breathing, speaking, singing, coughing and sneezing. For SARS-COV-2, researchers are determining the length of time a contaminated person sheds virus by testing swab samples from contaminated people with time. An early study found that COVID-19 clients shed the virus for approximately 20 days. Individuals likewise appear to shed the greatest quantities of infection around the time signs initially appear. Favorable screening rate: The portion of people checked who are verified to have the coronavirus. For SARS-COV-2, WHO officials state a positive testing rate of 10% or less may indicate that a community is carrying out enough checking to discover most cases. Quarantine: The separation or restriction of movement of people who appear to be healthy however may have been exposed to a transmittable disease to see if they end up being ill. The length of the quarantine depends on the incubation period for the illness.